Fertiliser can be distributed by hand, by combine drill which sows both seed and fertiliser in one operation, by fertiliser box or by spinner. The fertiliser box is 2.8 – 3 metres wide and either pulled by a tractor or mounted on the 3-point linkage. This method is slow but accurate and fertiliser can be placed in a row exactly where it is required.

Figure 1: A fertiliser box

Source: tractorbynet

The fertiliser spinner is fast but needs careful setting. The hopper has a capacity of 500 kg of fertiliser, and the machine has a spreading width of 7 metres with granulated fertiliser and 5 metres with powder. The lowest rate of sowing is 60 kg/ha.

Figure 2: A spinner fertiliser spreader

Source: ls2013mods

Table 1: Diferent fertiliser distridutors

Figure 3: A large capacity spreader

Source: streumaster-agro


Used for spraying liquid herbicide onto lands as well as insecticide and fungicide onto crops.

Figure 4 and 5: Sprayer, mounted on a tractor 3-point linkage (left) and a sprayer that is attached tothe tractors drawbar (right)

Source: tractorbynet.com                                                          Source: Blogspot

Figure 6: Large boom sprayer, spraying a growing crop

Source: uniagroup


  • Knapsack Sprayer – 2 ha/day

·     Tractor Sprayer – 7 nozzles      14 ha/day

·     Tractor Sprayer – 9 nozzles      18 ha/day

  • Tractor Sprayer – Mist Blower 30 ha/day
  • Helicopter – 40 ha/day

Figure 7: Spraying a crop or field with an aeroplane

Source: oskbes.ru


Silage is made to provide a fresh, green succulent feed for cattle, particularly dairy cows, in the winter. Silage can be made from grass or a forage crop grown for that purpose. In temperate regions, silage is made mainly from grass, and in Southern Africa it is made from maize crops. The crop is cut and ensiled when the cobs are at the ‘milky’ stage, and a good, well fertilized crop will yield 40 – 50 tons per hectare of material. Silage can be made in clamps, pits or towers, with pits being the commonest, safest and cheapest method.

When making silage, fresh green material is thrown into a pit and rolled down with a tractor to expel as much air as possible. The respiration of the plant cells, and micro-organisms present, use up any air that is present and cause a rise in temperature. At the same time, bacteria convert the sugars in the plant material into organic acids, mainly lactic and acetic acids. These acids lower the pH of the silage and prevent any further fermentations or decomposition of the grass or maize. As long as any further air is kept out of the silage, the material is preserved in the same way as food is pickled in vinegar, which is acetic acid.

The object when making silage out of a crop like maize which is coarse, steamy material, is to chop up the plant into small pieces, about 100 mm long, so that they can be consolidated and well pressed down in the pit. This prevents further air from entering the silage. Too much air will cause a sharp rise in temperature and dark brown, overheated silage with a poor feeding value because much of the sugar has been partly burned. Well-made silage that is produced by a lactic acid fermentation should be a light green colour with a sharp, acid smell and flavour. Although there will always be some loss in feeding value because of the fermentation, good silage should not lose more than 20% of the energy and 10% of the protein value of the original material. Because of the organic acids it contains, silage is particularly suitable for ruminants and can be fed to both cattle and sheep.

Small quantities can be fed occasionally to pigs as a tonic and as a cure for scours.

Figure 8: A silage harvester

Source: deere

Figure 9: Silage harvester and tractors with trailers to carry the silage to the storage pit

Source: sdcornblog