Maize Bran

Feeding Value:

  • T.D.N. – 68%
    • C.P. – 7%
    • D.C.P. – 4%

Maize bran consists of the outer coating of the maize kernels, including the hull and the tip cap. It contains 15.0% fibre and is used as filler in concentrates for ruminants.

Wheat Bran

Feeding Value:

  • T.D.N. – 66%
      Costive: liable to cause constipation.

C.P. – 12 – 16%

  • D.C.P. – 11%

Wheat bran, which consists almost entirely of the coarse outer coatings of the wheat kernel, is one of the most important and valuable stock feeds. It is highly palatable to stock and it has a mild laxative effect if fed wet, but is costive when fed dry. It usually contains about 10% fibre, and is of good quality  and must consist of clearly visible flakes. The protein of bran is of

better quality than that of maize or wheat. In phosphorus content, bran is one of the richest of all common feeds but it is low in calcium.

Wheat bran is a popular dairy feed and its value for milk production seems to be greater than would be indicated from its nutritive value. If the ingredients of a meal ration have been put through a hammer-mill, the inclusion of wheat bran improves its physical constituency, especially where large quantities are fed. It frequently forms 10% of the diet of farrowing sows, but is rather fibrous for use in the ration of fattening pigs.

Pollard or Middlings

Feeding Value:

  • T.D.N. – 72%
    • C.P. – 14 – 16%
    • D.C.P. – 11%

This is fine wheat bran mixed in varying proportions with wheat meal. A good quality pollard would consist of 50% bran and 50% meal. It is appreciably more digestible than wheat bran and it has lower fibre content. For these reasons it is a popular feed for young animals and pigs. In pig production it produces excellent results when fed with grain (e.g. maize or barley) and a protein supplement, (e.g. soybean oil meal or fishmeal). Fed in this way, middlings are worth as much as, or slightly more than maize.

Rice Bran

Feeding Value:

      Culms: the hollow stem of a grass or cereal plant, especially that bearing the flower.

T.D.N. – 65%

  • C.P. – 12%
    • D.C.P. – 8.0%

Rice bran consists of the bran and germs which has been removed in milling rice (Oryza sativa L) for human food. It has an average content of protein and a relatively high oil content (12%). The quality of its protein is better than that of maize. Rice bran varies considerably in fibre content (average 11%), because of the variable amounts of hulls present.

It is rich in B vitamins, thiamine and niacin. Unfortunately it often turns rancid in storage because of the high oil content.

Rice bran is fed chiefly to dairy cattle as part of a concentrate mixture. Its fibrous and oily nature makes it an unsuitable feed for pigs.


The by-products usually available are brewer’s wet grain and brewer’s dried grain from barley and sorghum brewing, and malt culms. In the process of brewing, the carbohydrates are utilised to produce alcohol, so that the residue, when dry, is richer in protein and fibre than the original grain.

The wet grains readily turn sour and mouldy if left exposed to the air. To preserve them in a wholesome condition, they should be stored in air-tight containers or by adding ordinary salt and thereafter followed by hard trampling. These methods of preservation should have no adverse effect on the feed value of the product. The grains are balanced for milk production, but their odour may taint the milk, either through feeding before milking or by direct absorption of the odour.

Brewer’s Dried Grains

Feeding Value:

  • T.D.N. – 60%
    • C.P. – 20 – 23%
    • D.C.P. – 16%

The dried grains from sorghum and those from barley have very similar compositions and nutritive values. The protein content is 20% or a little more, the fat content is approximately 6%, and the fibre about 14%. The nitrogen-free extract comprises largely on pentosans, for most of the starch is palatable. They are too fibrous to be a suitable feed for pigs.

Wet Brewer’s Grains

Feeding Value:

T.D.N. 20 – 25%

C.P.7– 9%


The average moisture content of the wet grain is from 60 to 70%. Wet brewer’s grains may be fed to dairy cows at the rate of 44 kg to 66 kg per head daily to replace an equal weight of silage, or as a substitute for part of the concentrate – 8 kg of wet grains for 2 kg of concentrates.

Malt Culms

Feeding Value:

  • T.D.N. – 65%
  • C.P. – 24 – 25%
  • D.C.P. – 20%

Malt culms consist of the dried sprouts and rootlets of the malt. They are similar in composition to brewers’ dried grains, except that they have much less fat. One-third of the protein is present as asparagine. Malt sprouts are somewhat bitter and are unpalatable if fed alone.

Dried Brewer’s Yeast

Feeding Value:

Protein – 40 – 45%

Dried brewer’s yeast results from drying waste yeast from breweries. It contains practically no fibre and no oil, but 10% ash which is very rich in phosphate and low in calcium. Dried yeast is particularly rich in the vitamin B complex, and 2 – 3%, included in poultry feeds, safeguards the supply of vitamin B1 and riboflavin. It is deficient in vitamin B12. The proteins of dried yeast have a high biological value.